"Scotland is bounded by the north by The North Sea; and on the east, by the German ocean; to the south-east, by the liberties of Berwick, and by England; on the south, by the Solway frith (sic) and the Irish sea; and on the west, by the Atlantic ocean. The line of its boundary on the south-east from a point 3 miles north of Berwick to the head of the Solway frith at the embouchure of the Sark, measures, inclusive of sinuosities, about 117 miles. This line has very numerous but not great windings; and, over great part of its length, is very capricious, and not physically marked. The curious reader may trace it by reference to our articles on the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, and Dumfries, whose southern boundary-lines are identical with this. Popular language is utterly at fault in speaking of Scotland as the part of Britain which lies north of the Tweed; that river running in the interior till 18 miles before it reaches the sea, and having on its left bank, for the last 4 of these miles, the liberties of Berwick. Scotland, as to its mainland, lies between 54° 41’ and 58° 41’ north latitude, and 1° 43’ and 5° 38’ west longitude; and, including its islands, it extends to 60° 49’ north latitude, and 8° 55’ west longitude.
The greatest length of the mainland, in a line due north, or very nearly so, is from the Mull of Galloway to Cape Wrath, and measures 274 miles. The greatest length of it in any possible direction is from the Mull of Galloway to Dunnet-head, and measures 280 miles. its breadth, from St. Abb’s head in Berwickshire to the point of Knap in Argyleshire, is 134 miles; from the mouth of the South Esk in Forfarshire to Ardnamurchan-point in Argyleshire, is 137 miles; and from Buchanness in Aberdeenshire to the extremity of Applecross in Ness-shire, is 146 miles. North of the Moray frith, the greatest breadth, from Duncansby-head to Cape-Wrath, is only 70 wiles; and the least from the Dornoch frith to Loch-Broom, is 36. The whole country is so penetrated by friths and inlets of the sea, that it constantly and very widely varies in breadth, and has no spot which is upwards of 40 miles inland. The area, partly as ascertained by the Ordnance survey, partly as computed on the best other authorities, is 19,639,377 statute acres, or about 30,685 square miles. This excludes all sea-inlets below low-water mark, but includes about 155,000 acres of inland lakes. The Ordnance survey has long been in progress, and, at the end of 1864, had completed 15,400 square miles. The report to the Board of Agriculture made the area, exclusive of water, to about 18,944,000 acres, or 29,600 square miles; and estimated the cultivated lands at 5,013,450 acres,—the uncultivated at 13,900,550."
From the Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland, edited by Rev. John Marius Wilson, 1868